Construction of a house is always undertaken in specific steps or stages. These Stages are arranged in order to utilise a specific team on site (masons, electricians, carpenters, etc.) to the fullest before you release them and bring in another team. Since most of these construction activities are specialised and require personal of high experience, its important top know the financial impact and time requirement of each activity.
The purpose of this article is to breakdown the construction process of your home into logical steps & stages. These steps & stages are related to implementation teams in order to place work required by a specific team next to each other.
For those who wish to know how to build a house in simple cost effective stages, you can read the article here.
Some of the items listed don’t apply to every home, and some are not always done in the exact order listed. But this gives you a basic overall guide to the steps & stages in the building process.
- Site clearing: This involves removing all unwanted tress, shrubs, grass, rocks, soil and most important, levelling or grading the plot as specified by the architect or required by the construction team. This process can be simply called site preparation.
- Setting out the site: This is simply drawing out the location of the construction work on the ground. This usually involves the use of chalk powder, string or rope and wooden pegs. This set gives you an idea of the location of all works and services to be constructed in relation to the plot and all existing buildings, trees and roads.
- Foundation construction: This step involves excavation of the prepared ground, pouring of concrete and building of the foundation walls. This step can simply be pouring of concrete piles, hammering of steep piles or placing of wooden piles into the ground.
- Backfill of foundations: After the foundation has been constructed in case of a none-pile foundation, the foundation has to be backfilled or simply the still existing holes should be filled with materials to bring the site back to the required level. Most of the time the backfill will consist of the soil that was excavated but in some instances, better material may be required for this very important activity.
- Start planting grass/ lawn, flowers, trees: For those who wish to have a lash fully grown garden when they move into the house, this would be the best time to start planting it.
- Wall & column construction: Walls can now be erected on top of the foundation/ ground floor slab. For storied building, the columns of the ground floor will be erected at this stage.
- Slab construction: For storied houses, the first floor slab will be constructed at this stage.
- Wall and column construction: For storied houses, the second floor walls and columns will proceed at this stage.
- Roofing: For a typical gable or hipped roof, this involves placing the wall plate, erecting the trusses, placing the roof cover (tiles, iron sheets, shingles, etc.). For a flat concrete roof, the construction of the roof slab will be carried out at this stage.
- Installation of windows and doors: The windows and door frames and shutters can be installed at this stage.
- Rough electrical: The electrical ducting with all the in-wall accessories will be fitted at this stage for both the internal and external electrical works.
- Rough plumbing: This involves laying the plumbing lines, installing them with elbows, joints, junctions, reducers, valves, etc. If a sceptic system is to be installed on the property, this stage will also include the waste water construction and installation works.
- External wall plastering
- Internal wall plastering
- Floor finishes: This will involve laying the floor tiles, floor boards or screeding the concrete.
- Furnishings: At this stage, the kitchen counters, inbuilt cabinets, cupboards and wardrobes will be installed.
- Painting: Internal paint works and external finishes (painting, facing bricks, rough cast, etc.) will take place at this stage.
- Finish electrical: Installation of the wiring, control units, and electrical appliances and testing them to verify the installation has been done to the required standard.
- Applications to national service providers: Apply to the Power Grid Company, National or Regional Water Provider and Communal or Regional Waste Management Service Company can be carried out at this stage. In some regions, this is also the time to apply to the garbage disposal services to make have your home added to their activities.
- Hard Surfaces installed: This stage involves the installation of granite worktops and railings finishes.
- Finish plumbing and install gutters & water harvesting system: Installation of water appliances (WC’s, wash basins, sinks, etc.) and all water harvesting or arresting systems will be undertaken at this stage.
- Carpet, wall paper and decorations
- Air conditioning
- Connection to water main: The connection or hook-up to the national or regional water services mains, or well drilling will take place at this stage.
- Connection to the waste system: Hook-up to the sewer network or installation to the septic system.
- Installation of compound finishes: Laying of the pavers, asphalt, concrete, marram or stone spread into your compound/ yard will take place at this stage.
- Final quality check: This is best undertaken by the owners together with professional technicians who will check that all the finishes are done as per the specifications, all connections (electrical, plumbing, sewer, air-conditioning, etc.) are done to the national and manufacturers specifications. In general, a check to give the owners approval that the house is safe to move in.
- Move into your new home!
There you go! Those are the steps a typical bungalow (single story) and two story house involve during construction. If you are planning or already in the process of construction a house, you can find information about lowering your construction costs here and a guide to building your own house in manageable phases here.